農業情報研究所農業・農村・食料動物薬品・成長促進剤等>ニュース:2019518

米国柑橘農家 病害防除にストレプトマイシン等抗菌剤を散布 EPAが公認

、細菌の薬剤耐性を発達させる恐れがあるとCDC(疾病予防管理センター)やFDA(食品医薬局)が反対しているにもかかわらず、トランプ政権下の環境保護局(EPA)が柑橘病防除のために、梅毒、結核、尿路感染症などの人の感染症の治療で重要な役割を演じる抗生剤、ストレプトマイシンとオキシテトラサイクリンの散布を広く認めた。最初はフロリダに限られていたが、いまではカリフォルニア、テキサスその他柑橘生産州の76万4000エーカー(約31万ヘクタール)での使用が認められている。CDCやFDAは、農業でのこのような大量の薬剤使用は細菌の薬剤耐性を発達させ、多くの人々の命を脅かすと警告している。

家畜の成長促進のための抗生剤使用停止は何だったのだろうか(米国 家畜成長促進剤としての抗生剤使用に終止符 家畜への抗生剤使用でFDAが新ルール 農業情報研究所 12.4.12)。今度は米国産オレンジ、グレープフルーツにご用心。

 Deadly Germs, Lost Cures: Citrus Farmers Facing Deadly Bacteria Turn to Antibiotics, Alarming Health Officials,The New York Times,19.5.18

In its decision to approve two drugs for orange and grapefruit trees, the E.P.A. largely ignored objections from the C.D.C. and the F.D.A., which fear that expanding their use in cash crops could fuel antibiotic resistance in humans

A pernicious disease is eating away at Roy Petteway’s orange trees. The bacterial infection, transmitted by a tiny winged insect from China, has evaded all efforts to contain it, decimating Florida’s citrus industry and forcing scores of growers out of business.

In a last-ditch attempt to slow the infection, Mr. Petteway revved up his industrial sprayer one recent afternoon and doused the trees with a novel pesticide: antibiotics used to treat syphilis, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections and a number of other illnesses in humans.

“These bactericides give us hope,” said Mr. Petteway’s son, R. Roy, 33, as he watched his father treat the family’s trees, some of them 50 years old. “Because right now, it’s like we’re doing the doggy paddle without a life preserver and swallowing water.”

Since 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency has allowed Florida citrus farmers to use the drugs, streptomycin and oxytetracycline, on an emergency basis, but the agency is now significantly expanding their permitted use across 764,000 acres in California, Texas and other citrus-producing states. The agency approved the expanded use despite strenuous objections from the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which warn that the heavy use of antimicrobial drugs in agriculture could spur germs to mutate so they become resistant to the drugs, threatening the lives of millions of people.

The E.P.A. has proposed allowing as much as 650,000 pounds of streptomycin to be sprayed on citrus crops each year. By comparison, Americans annually use 14,000 pounds of aminoglycosides, the class of antibiotics that includes streptomycin.---------

Drug-resistant infections kill 23,000 Americans each year and sicken two million, according to the C.D.C. As more germs mutate, the threat is growing. With few new medicines in the pipeline, the United Nations says resistant infections could claim 10 million lives globally by 2050, exceeding deaths from cancer.

Antibiotics sprayed on crops can affect farm workers or people who directly consume contaminated fruit, but scientists are especially worried that the drugs will cause pathogenic bacteria in the soil to become resistant to the compounds and then find their way to people through groundwater or contaminated food. The other fear is that these bacteria will share their drug-resistant mechanisms with other germs, making them, too, impervious to other kinds of antibiotics.--------